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Roofing

9 Questions To Ask When You Choose A Roof

9 questions to ask when you choose a new roof

9 Questions To Ask When You Choose A Roof – Choosing the right replacement for an aged roof – or identifying the simplest choice for a replacement building – is not any easy task. the right roofing solution for one building could also be the worst option for an additional just down the road . That’s because no two buildings are precisely alike, albeit they closely resemble one another. So how does one choose a replacement roof, given all the alternatives within the marketplace? you’ll start by asking a series of questions before you select the roof, the roofing contractor or the manufacturer.

1. what’s this building’s mission statement?

Before calls are made to roofing contractors or manufacturers, like Couvreur Nantes, the primary item to deal with is that the company’s mission statement because it relates to the building.

Whether you’re building new facilities or managing existing properties, you would like to be confident that the roofing systems you decide on to deliver the performance you expect. More often than not, the building itself dictates the acceptable roofing system specification.

You need to understand the maximum amount about the building and its future as possible. Does the corporate decide to keep this building as a part of its land assets for the subsequent 10 to twenty years? Are there any plans to expand it within the near future, or to vary its use? What are its current and future occupancy, insulation requirements, aesthetic priorities and even the upkeep schedules for rooftop equipment?

These and other mission statement issues will help shape answers to sorts of roofing to think about and the way much of the capital budget is basically needed for the work.

Start your questions with what’s the building getting to be used for. If it is a spec building, maybe you simply need a basic roof. But, if the power features a special use, as an airline reservation center with computers in it, then your considerations for roofing options are quite different.

For example, as more companies move toward operating 24 hours daily, seven days every week to satisfy global customers, the info center must not ever spring a rooftop leak. Water on computer systems generally spells disaster.

A special set of concerns arise for cooling-dominated climates. Does the roof contribute to air con savings and address other key issues? Is it a part of a complete energy program? there’s a growing concern about urban heat islands. Reflective, white roofs became of interest in those areas for a couple of reasons. They keep the building cooler, reduce air con costs and also minimize the heat-loading of the encompassing environment.

2. What physical and other elements influence the roofing system selection?

After identifying the goals and mission of a facility, it is time to guage the building itself. you would like to start by watching the building’s location and therefore the attributes of its surrounding area. you would like to look at building codes, weather trends, topography – even the direction the building faces.

The physical characteristics of the building also are crucial: size, shape, design, height and age.
You also got to check out the development materials wont to build the power and therefore the location of HVAC and fire protection equipment, particularly if either or both of those are partially or totally housed on the rooftop.

When it involves roof replacement, you would like to list the attributes of the roof area itself. it is best to detail the roof’s size, shape, slope, deck construction, edge detailing, protrusions, rooftop access and existing roofing system. along side this basic information, you would like to seek out out why the first roof is not any longer adequate.

3. What flexible-membrane roofing options are available?

SPRI, the association that represents sheet membrane and component suppliers to the commercial roofing industry, identifies three major categories of membranes: thermosets, thermoplastics and modified bitumens.

Thermoset membranes are made up of rubber polymers. the foremost common is EPDM, often mentioned as “rubber roofing.” These membranes are compatible to face up to the doubtless damaging effects of sunlight and therefore the common chemicals found on roofs. they’re easily identified on the rooftop. Just check out the seams. Thermoset membranes require liquid or tape adhesives to make a watertight seal at the overlaps.
Thermoplastic membranes are supported plastic polymers. the foremost common is PVC, which is formed flexible by adding plasticizers. Thermoplastic membranes have seams that are most ordinarily formed using heat welding. Most thermoplastic membranes are manufactured with a reinforcement layer, usually polyester or fiberglass to supply increased strength and dimensional stability.

Hypalon thermoplastic begins as a thermoplastic, but cures over time to become a thermoset. Like other thermoplastics, Hypalon materials are heat sealed at the seams.

Another thermoplastic hybrid is thermoplastic polyolefin (TPO), which mixes the attributes of EPDM and PVC. TPO membranes don’t cure after exposure to the weather and remain hot-air weldable throughout their service life. Most TPO membranes are reinforced with polyester, fiberglass or a mixture of the 2 , but unreinforced TPO membranes are available.

Modified bitumen membranes incorporate the formulation and prefabrication advantages of flexible-membrane roofing with a number of the normal installation techniques utilized in built-up roofing. Modified bitumen sheets are factory-fabricated, composed of asphalt which is modified with a rubber or plastic polymer for increased flexibility, and combined with a reinforcement for added strength and stability.

4. which sort of membrane and attachment system are best for the building?

Many factors determine the simplest system for a specific building. for many buildings, there are variety of options and advantages that require to be weighed against the facility’s mission statement. the choice shouldn’t be made only on the idea of cost. Other important considerations for membranes are building height, windage , anticipated roof traffic and aesthetics.

The attachment system also depends on the precise building’s characteristics. If the roof deck is in a position to face up to the load, a ballasted roof could also be the simplest option. But, if the slope of the roof is bigger than 2 inches every foot, this technique might not be appropriate. There are other limitations to ballasted systems, like roof height, proximity to shorelines and other wind zones, and therefore the availability of ballast.
A steel or wood deck that easily accepts fasteners makes an honest substrate for a mechanically fastened membrane. These systems are often designed to supply the required resistance to known wind forces and aren’t subject to slope limitations.

Another alternative is that the fully adhered system, during which the membrane is attached to the prepared substrate employing a specified adhesive. counting on the membrane, the adhesive could also be solvent- or water-based or asphalt. The finished surface of an adhered roof is smooth.

For those concerned with building aesthetics, colored membranes can make a beautiful contribution to the building’s appearance.

5. Does all building material delivered to the work site bear the UL label?

If not, specify that it must. this is often the sole way you’ll guarantee that the roofing materials installed on your roof are an equivalent materials tested by Underwriter’s Laboratories. Additionally, make certain that the roof assembly you purchase or specify, which incorporates the insulation, is UL-classified and -labeled. Using an insulation aside from what was tested with the roofing membrane may void the UL classification. If the UL Building Materials Directory doesn’t list the roofing system you’re sold, enforce verification of the classification within the sort of a photocopy of the UL’s letter of approval.

Make sure that the merchandise you’re getting is that the actual product that was tested. you do not want something that’s similar but not equal. Search for the label at the worksite and confirm all components of the system were tested together. you would like the membrane tested with the insulation that you simply are using on your building.

6. Does the system require a wind uplift rating?

Wind uplift damage is often extensive and expensive. Accepted as an industry standard, American Society of Civil Engineers Standard 7-95, “Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures,” are often wont to determine the wind zone of the building. Wind uplift testing, like that performed at Factory Mutual or Underwriters Laboratories, is often wont to determine that the chosen roof system meets or exceeds the local wind uplift requirements.

7. what proportion does the finished system increase the load weight of the roof structure?

In choosing any reroofing option, the power executive should remember of the load-bearing capacity of the roof deck to form sure the proper flexible-membrane option is chosen. In new construction, savings in steel can often be achieved by installing one among the lighter flexible-membrane systems.

A ballasted thermoplastic or EPDM roof may require in more than 1,000 pounds per 100 square feet, while a mechanically attached or fully adhered thermoset or thermoplastic membrane weighs 33 pounds per 100 square feet. A lighter system often allows you to reroof directly over your existing roof, while the heavier ones may require you to tear away the old roof and start anew. But weight is merely one consideration within the selection of a roof membrane and attachment system. A ballasted roof could also be the simplest choice for a given facility. Facility executives must assure that each one relevant considerations, including weight, are taken under consideration within the decision-making process.

8. What are the expertise and financial strengths of the roofing contractor you’re considering?

Roofing contractors got to be chosen with care . The introduction of latest roofing materials and application techniques within the past 10 years has led to several changes. knowledgeable roofing contractor should be conversant in differing types of roofing systems, to assist you create the simplest decision for your facility, supported your budget.

Ask the contractor if his or her company may be a member of an area , state, regional or national industry association. Contractors involved in professional associations generally are better informed on the newest developments and problems with their industry.

Insist the contractor supply you with copies of insurance certificates that verify workers’ compensation and general liability coverages. make sure those coverages are in effect for the duration of your roofing job. If the contractor isn’t properly insured, your company, because the landowner , could also be responsible for accidents occurring on the property. Also check your state’s licensing requirements and determine if the contractor is bonded by a surety company.

The installation of various roofing systems varies considerably. Education and training are the foremost important elements within the installation of roofing systems. confirm the roofing contractor you select has had detailed and ongoing training on the system being installed.

One rule of thumb is to seek out out if the contractor has installed a minimum of 100,000 square feet of the system you would like within the past 18 months. Also, confirm the contractor is approved by the manufacturer to put in that specific system.

The quality of workmanship is crucial to good roof performance. The National Roofing Contractors Association offers knowledgeable roofing selection guide. additionally , many manufacturers have approved contractor programs with specific qualifications that roofers must complete before approval.

9. what’s warranted and by whom?

There are two basic categories of roofing warranties. The contractor’s warranty typically covers workmanship. The manufacturer’s warranty covers a minimum of the materials, though many canopy additional items. albeit the manufacturer’s warranty is broad, it’ll not completely protect you if the roof is badly installed.

Carefully read and understand any roofing warranty offered and await provisions that might void it. for instance , it’s nearly impossible to avoid all ponded water. Ponded water are often caused by a clogged roof drain or deflection of the roof deck in between the support columns. Proper roof maintenance can help assure that the warranty remains valid. remember of warranty language that voids the guarantee.

Most professional roofing contractors will offer periodic maintenance inspections throughout the year. These inspections help ensure your project complies with the standards laid out in the warranty. A typical maintenance program consists of an in depth visual examination of the roof system, flashing, insulation and related components to spot any potential trouble areas.

More important than the warranty, however, is getting the proper flexible-membrane roof on your building within the first place. If the roof is correctly designed and installed to satisfy your facility’s needs, building codes and geographical considerations, and therefore the warranty covers those needs, you almost certainly are going to be enjoying the advantages of a flexible-membrane roof a few years after the first warranty expires.

9 Questions To Ask When You Choose A Roof – 9 Questions To Ask When You Choose A Roof – 9 Questions To Ask When You Choose A Roof – 9 Questions To Ask When You Choose A Roof – 9 Questions To Ask When You Choose A Roof – 9 Questions To Ask When You Choose A Roof –

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Accounting

Profit and Loss

Profit and Loss Cabinet Comptable Angers

Profit and Loss : it might seem like a no-brainer to define just exactly what profit and loss are. But of course, these have definitions like everything else. Profit can be called different things, for a start. It’s sometimes called net income or net earnings. Businesses that sell products and services generate profit from the sales of those products or services and from controlling the attendant costs of running the business. Profit can also be referred to as Return on Investment, or ROI. While some definitions limit ROI to profit on investments in such securities as stocks or bonds, many companies use this term to refer to short-term and long-term business results. Business term loan is important too. Profit is sometimes called taxable income.

It’s the job of the accounting and finance professionals

to assess the profits and losses of a company. They have to know what created both and what the results of both sides of the business equation are. They determine what the net worth of a company is. Net worth is the resulting dollar amount from deducting a company’s liabilities from its assets. In a privately held company, this is also called owner’s equity, since anything that’s leftover after all the bills are paid, to put it simply, belongs to the owners. In a publicly held company, this profit is returned to the shareholders in the form of dividends. In other words, all liabilities have the first claim on any money the company makes. Anything that’s left over is profit, says Vin Faugeres . It’s not derived from one element or another. Net worth is determined after all the liabilities are deducted from all the assets, including cash and property.

Showing a profit, or a positive figure on the balance sheet

is of course the aim of every business. It’s what our economy and society are built on. It doesn’t always work out that way. Economic trends and consumer behaviors change and it’s not always possible to predict these and what income they’ll have on a company’s performance.

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Accounting

What happened at Enron?

ExpertComptable-Grenoble.com What happened at EnronWhat happened at Enron? Everyone knows at least a little about the Enron story and the devastation it created in the lives of its employees. It’s a story that belongs in any discussion of ethical accounting processes and what happens when accounting standards and ethics are discarded for personal greed.
Enron began in 1985 selling natural gas to gas companies and businesses. In 1996, energy markets were changed so that the price of energy could now be decided by competition among energy companies instead of being fixed by government regulations. With this change, Enron began to function more as a middleman than a traditional energy supplier, trading in energy contracts instead of buying and selling natural gas. Enron’s rapid growth created excitement among investors and drove the stock price up, mentions code postal Toulouse . As Enron grew, it expanded into other industries such as Internet services, and its financial contracts became more complicated.

In order to keep growing at this rate, Enron began to borrow money to invest in new projects.

However, because this debt would make their earnings look less impressive, Enron began to create partnerships that would allow it to keep debt off of its books. One partnership created by Enron, Chewco Investments (named after the Star Wars character Chewbacca) allowed Enron to keep $600 million in debt off of the books it showed to the government and to people who own Enron stock. When this debt did not show up in Enron’s reports, it made Enron seem much more successful than it actually was. In December 2000, Enron claimed to have tripled its profits in two years.

In August 2001, Enron vice president Sherron Watkins sent an anonymous letter to the CEO of Enron, Kenneth Lay, describing accounting methods that she felt could lead Enron to “implode in a wave of accounting scandals.”

Also in August, CEO Kenneth Lay sent e-mails to his employees saying that he expected Enron stock prices to go up. Meanwhile, he sold off his own stock in Enron.
On October 22nd, the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) announced that Enron was under investigation. On November 8th, Enron said that it has overstated earnings for the past four years by $586 million and that it owed over $6 billion in debt by next year.
With these announcements, Enron’s stock price took a dive. This drop triggered certain agreements with investors that made it necessary for Enron to repay their money immediately. When Enron could not come up with the cash to repay its creditors, it declared for Chapter 11 bankruptcy.

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Accounting

Managing the Bottom Line

ExpertComptable-Toulon.com managing bottom lineManaging the Bottom Line : if you don’t keep track of how much money you’re making, you have no idea whether your business is successful or not. You can’t tell how well your marketing is working, says Carte codes postaux . And I don’t just mean you should know the number of your total sales or gross revenue. You need to know what your net profit is. If you don’t, there’s no way you can know how to increase it.

If you want your business to be successful, you need to make a financial plan and check it against the facts on a monthly basis, then take immediate action to correct any problems. Here are the steps you should take:

* Create a financial plan for your business.

Estimate how much revenue you expect to bring in each month, and project what your expenses will be.

* Remember that lost profits can’t be recovered.

When entrepreneurs compare their projections to reality and find earnings too low or expenses too high, they often conclude, “I’ll make it up later.” The problem is that you really can’t make it up later: every month profits are too low is a month that is gone forever.

* Make adjustments right away.

If revenues are lower than expected, increase efforts in sales and marketing or look for ways to increase your rates. If overhead costs are too high, find ways to cut back. There are other businesses like yours around. What is their secret for operating profitably?

* Think before you spend.

When considering any new business expense, including marketing and sales activities, evaluate the increased earnings you expect to bring in against its cost before you proceed to make a purchase.

* Evaluate the success of your business based on profit, not revenue.

It doesn’t matter how many thousands of dollars you are bringing in each month if your expenses are almost as high, or higher. Many high-revenue businesses have gone under for this very reason — don’t be one of them.

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